; push(@result,$XHTML ? qq(\n\n$title) : ($lang ? qq() : "") . "$title"); if (defined $author) { push(@result,$XHTML ? "" : ""); } if ($base || $xbase || $target) { my $href = $xbase || $self->url('-path'=>1); my $t = $target ? qq/ target="$target"/ : ''; push(@result,$XHTML ? qq() : qq()); } if ($meta && ref($meta) && (ref($meta) eq 'HASH')) { for (keys %$meta) { push(@result,$XHTML ? qq() : qq()); } } my $meta_bits_set = 0; if( $head ) { if( ref $head ) { push @result, @$head; $meta_bits_set = 1 if grep { /http-equiv=["']Content-Type/i }@$head; } else { push @result, $head; $meta_bits_set = 1 if $head =~ /http-equiv=["']Content-Type/i; } } # handle the infrequently-used -style and -script parameters push(@result,$self->_style($style)) if defined $style; push(@result,$self->_script($script)) if defined $script; push(@result,$meta_bits) if defined $meta_bits and !$meta_bits_set; # handle -noscript parameter push(@result,< $noscript END ; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; push(@result,"\n\n"); return join("\n",@result); } END_OF_FUNC ### Method: _style # internal method for generating a CSS style section #### '_style' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _style { my ($self,$style) = @_; my (@result); my $type = 'text/css'; my $rel = 'stylesheet'; my $cdata_start = $XHTML ? "\n\n" : " -->\n"; my @s = ref($style) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$style : $style; my $other = ''; for my $s (@s) { if (ref($s)) { my($src,$code,$verbatim,$stype,$alternate,$foo,@other) = rearrange([qw(SRC CODE VERBATIM TYPE ALTERNATE FOO)], ('-foo'=>'bar', ref($s) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$s : %$s)); my $type = defined $stype ? $stype : 'text/css'; my $rel = $alternate ? 'alternate stylesheet' : 'stylesheet'; $other = "@other" if @other; if (ref($src) eq "ARRAY") # Check to see if the $src variable is an array reference { # If it is, push a LINK tag for each one for $src (@$src) { push(@result,$XHTML ? qq() : qq()) if $src; } } else { # Otherwise, push the single -src, if it exists. push(@result,$XHTML ? qq() : qq() ) if $src; } if ($verbatim) { my @v = ref($verbatim) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$verbatim : $verbatim; push(@result, "") for @v; } my @c = ref($code) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$code : $code if $code; push(@result,style({'type'=>$type},"$cdata_start\n$_\n$cdata_end")) for @c; } else { my $src = $s; push(@result,$XHTML ? qq() : qq()); } } @result; } END_OF_FUNC '_script' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _script { my ($self,$script) = @_; my (@result); my (@scripts) = ref($script) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$script : ($script); for $script (@scripts) { my($src,$code,$language); if (ref($script)) { # script is a hash ($src,$code,$type) = rearrange(['SRC','CODE',['LANGUAGE','TYPE']], '-foo'=>'bar', # a trick to allow the '-' to be omitted ref($script) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$script : %$script); $type ||= 'text/javascript'; unless ($type =~ m!\w+/\w+!) { $type =~ s/[\d.]+$//; $type = "text/$type"; } } else { ($src,$code,$type) = ('',$script, 'text/javascript'); } my $comment = '//'; # javascript by default $comment = '#' if $type=~/perl|tcl/i; $comment = "'" if $type=~/vbscript/i; my ($cdata_start,$cdata_end); if ($XHTML) { $cdata_start = "$comment"; } else { $cdata_start = "\n\n"; } my(@satts); push(@satts,'src'=>$src) if $src; push(@satts,'type'=>$type); $code = $cdata_start . $code . $cdata_end if defined $code; push(@result,$self->script({@satts},$code || '')); } @result; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: end_html # End an HTML document. # Trivial method for completeness. Just returns "" #### 'end_html' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub end_html { return "\n\n"; } END_OF_FUNC ################################ # METHODS USED IN BUILDING FORMS ################################ #### Method: isindex # Just prints out the isindex tag. # Parameters: # $action -> optional URL of script to run # Returns: # A string containing a tag 'isindex' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub isindex { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($action,@other) = rearrange([ACTION],@p); $action = qq/ action="$action"/ if $action; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; return $XHTML ? "" : ""; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: startform # This method is DEPRECATED # Start a form # Parameters: # $method -> optional submission method to use (GET or POST) # $action -> optional URL of script to run # $enctype ->encoding to use (URL_ENCODED or MULTIPART) 'startform' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub startform { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($method,$action,$enctype,@other) = rearrange([METHOD,ACTION,ENCTYPE],@p); $method = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML(lc($method || 'post')); $enctype = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($enctype || &URL_ENCODED); if (defined $action) { $action = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($action); } else { $action = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($self->request_uri || $self->self_url); } $action = qq(action="$action"); my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $self->{'.parametersToAdd'}={}; return qq/
\n/; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: start_form # Start a form # Parameters: # $method -> optional submission method to use (GET or POST) # $action -> optional URL of script to run # $enctype ->encoding to use (URL_ENCODED or MULTIPART) 'start_form' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub start_form { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($method,$action,$enctype,@other) = rearrange([METHOD,ACTION,ENCTYPE],@p); $method = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML(lc($method || 'post')); if( $XHTML ){ $enctype = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($enctype || &MULTIPART); }else{ $enctype = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($enctype || &URL_ENCODED); } if (defined $action) { $action = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($action); } else { $action = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($self->request_uri || $self->self_url); } $action = qq(action="$action"); my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $self->{'.parametersToAdd'}={}; return qq/\n/; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: start_multipart_form 'start_multipart_form' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub start_multipart_form { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); if (defined($p[0]) && substr($p[0],0,1) eq '-') { return $self->start_form(-enctype=>&MULTIPART,@p); } else { my($method,$action,@other) = rearrange([METHOD,ACTION],@p); return $self->start_form($method,$action,&MULTIPART,@other); } } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: end_form # End a form 'end_form' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub end_form { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); if ( $NOSTICKY ) { return wantarray ? ("
") : "\n"; } else { if (my @fields = $self->get_fields) { return wantarray ? ("
",@fields,"
","") : "
".(join '',@fields)."
\n"; } else { return ""; } } } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: end_multipart_form # end a multipart form 'end_multipart_form' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub end_multipart_form { &end_form; } END_OF_FUNC '_textfield' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _textfield { my($self,$tag,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name,$default,$size,$maxlength,$override,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[DEFAULT,VALUE,VALUES],SIZE,MAXLENGTH,[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p); my $current = $override ? $default : (defined($self->param($name)) ? $self->param($name) : $default); $current = defined($current) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($current,1) : ''; $name = defined($name) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name) : ''; my($s) = defined($size) ? qq/ size="$size"/ : ''; my($m) = defined($maxlength) ? qq/ maxlength="$maxlength"/ : ''; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; # this entered at cristy's request to fix problems with file upload fields # and WebTV -- not sure it won't break stuff my($value) = $current ne '' ? qq(value="$current") : ''; $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); return $XHTML ? qq() : qq(); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: textfield # Parameters: # $name -> Name of the text field # $default -> Optional default value of the field if not # already defined. # $size -> Optional width of field in characaters. # $maxlength -> Optional maximum number of characters. # Returns: # A string containing a field # 'textfield' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub textfield { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); $self->_textfield('text',@p); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: filefield # Parameters: # $name -> Name of the file upload field # $size -> Optional width of field in characaters. # $maxlength -> Optional maximum number of characters. # Returns: # A string containing a field # 'filefield' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub filefield { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); $self->_textfield('file',@p); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: password # Create a "secret password" entry field # Parameters: # $name -> Name of the field # $default -> Optional default value of the field if not # already defined. # $size -> Optional width of field in characters. # $maxlength -> Optional maximum characters that can be entered. # Returns: # A string containing a field # 'password_field' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub password_field { my ($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); $self->_textfield('password',@p); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: textarea # Parameters: # $name -> Name of the text field # $default -> Optional default value of the field if not # already defined. # $rows -> Optional number of rows in text area # $columns -> Optional number of columns in text area # Returns: # A string containing a tag # 'textarea' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub textarea { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name,$default,$rows,$cols,$override,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[DEFAULT,VALUE],ROWS,[COLS,COLUMNS],[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p); my($current)= $override ? $default : (defined($self->param($name)) ? $self->param($name) : $default); $name = defined($name) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name) : ''; $current = defined($current) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($current) : ''; my($r) = $rows ? qq/ rows="$rows"/ : ''; my($c) = $cols ? qq/ cols="$cols"/ : ''; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); return qq{}; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: button # Create a javascript button. # Parameters: # $name -> (optional) Name for the button. (-name) # $value -> (optional) Value of the button when selected (and visible name) (-value) # $onclick -> (optional) Text of the JavaScript to run when the button is # clicked. # Returns: # A string containing a tag #### 'button' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub button { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($label,$value,$script,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUE,LABEL], [ONCLICK,SCRIPT],TABINDEX],@p); $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label); $value=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1); $script=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($script); $script ||= ''; my($name) = ''; $name = qq/ name="$label"/ if $label; $value = $value || $label; my($val) = ''; $val = qq/ value="$value"/ if $value; $script = qq/ onclick="$script"/ if $script; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); return $XHTML ? qq() : qq(); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: submit # Create a "submit query" button. # Parameters: # $name -> (optional) Name for the button. # $value -> (optional) Value of the button when selected (also doubles as label). # $label -> (optional) Label printed on the button(also doubles as the value). # Returns: # A string containing a tag #### 'submit' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub submit { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($label,$value,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUE,LABEL],TABINDEX],@p); $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label); $value=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1); my $name = $NOSTICKY ? '' : 'name=".submit" '; $name = qq/name="$label" / if defined($label); $value = defined($value) ? $value : $label; my $val = ''; $val = qq/value="$value" / if defined($value); $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); my($other) = @other ? "@other " : ''; return $XHTML ? qq() : qq(); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: reset # Create a "reset" button. # Parameters: # $name -> (optional) Name for the button. # Returns: # A string containing a tag #### 'reset' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub reset { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($label,$value,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange(['NAME',['VALUE','LABEL'],TABINDEX],@p); $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label); $value=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1); my ($name) = ' name=".reset"'; $name = qq/ name="$label"/ if defined($label); $value = defined($value) ? $value : $label; my($val) = ''; $val = qq/ value="$value"/ if defined($value); my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); return $XHTML ? qq() : qq(); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: defaults # Create a "defaults" button. # Parameters: # $name -> (optional) Name for the button. # Returns: # A string containing a tag # # Note: this button has a special meaning to the initialization script, # and tells it to ERASE the current query string so that your defaults # are used again! #### 'defaults' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub defaults { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($label,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([[NAME,VALUE],TABINDEX],@p); $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label,1); $label = $label || "Defaults"; my($value) = qq/ value="$label"/; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); return $XHTML ? qq() : qq//; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: comment # Create an HTML # Parameters: a string 'comment' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub comment { my($self,@p) = self_or_CGI(@_); return ""; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: checkbox # Create a checkbox that is not logically linked to any others. # The field value is "on" when the button is checked. # Parameters: # $name -> Name of the checkbox # $checked -> (optional) turned on by default if true # $value -> (optional) value of the checkbox, 'on' by default # $label -> (optional) a user-readable label printed next to the box. # Otherwise the checkbox name is used. # Returns: # A string containing a field #### 'checkbox' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub checkbox { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name,$checked,$value,$label,$labelattributes,$override,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[CHECKED,SELECTED,ON],VALUE,LABEL,LABELATTRIBUTES, [OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p); $value = defined $value ? $value : 'on'; if (!$override && ($self->{'.fieldnames'}->{$name} || defined $self->param($name))) { $checked = grep($_ eq $value,$self->param($name)) ? $self->_checked(1) : ''; } else { $checked = $self->_checked($checked); } my($the_label) = defined $label ? $label : $name; $name = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name); $value = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1); $the_label = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($the_label); my($other) = @other ? "@other " : ''; $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); $self->register_parameter($name); return $XHTML ? CGI::label($labelattributes, qq{$the_label}) : qq{$the_label}; } END_OF_FUNC # Escape HTML 'escapeHTML' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub escapeHTML { # hack to work around earlier hacks push @_,$_[0] if @_==1 && $_[0] eq 'CGI'; my ($self,$toencode,$newlinestoo) = CGI::self_or_default(@_); return undef unless defined($toencode); $toencode =~ s{&}{&}gso; $toencode =~ s{<}{<}gso; $toencode =~ s{>}{>}gso; if ($DTD_PUBLIC_IDENTIFIER =~ /[^X]HTML 3\.2/i) { # $quot; was accidentally omitted from the HTML 3.2 DTD -- see # / # . $toencode =~ s{"}{"}gso; } else { $toencode =~ s{"}{"}gso; } # Handle bug in some browsers with Latin charsets if ($self->{'.charset'} && (uc($self->{'.charset'}) eq 'ISO-8859-1' || uc($self->{'.charset'}) eq 'WINDOWS-1252')) { $toencode =~ s{'}{'}gso; $toencode =~ s{\x8b}{‹}gso; $toencode =~ s{\x9b}{›}gso; if (defined $newlinestoo && $newlinestoo) { $toencode =~ s{\012}{ }gso; $toencode =~ s{\015}{ }gso; } } return $toencode; } END_OF_FUNC # unescape HTML -- used internally 'unescapeHTML' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub unescapeHTML { # hack to work around earlier hacks push @_,$_[0] if @_==1 && $_[0] eq 'CGI'; my ($self,$string) = CGI::self_or_default(@_); return undef unless defined($string); my $latin = defined $self->{'.charset'} ? $self->{'.charset'} =~ /^(ISO-8859-1|WINDOWS-1252)$/i : 1; # thanks to Randal Schwartz for the correct solution to this one $string=~ s[&(\S*?);]{ local $_ = $1; /^amp$/i ? "&" : /^quot$/i ? '"' : /^gt$/i ? ">" : /^lt$/i ? "<" : /^#(\d+)$/ && $latin ? chr($1) : /^#x([0-9a-f]+)$/i && $latin ? chr(hex($1)) : $_ }gex; return $string; } END_OF_FUNC # Internal procedure - don't use '_tableize' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _tableize { my($rows,$columns,$rowheaders,$colheaders,@elements) = @_; my @rowheaders = $rowheaders ? @$rowheaders : (); my @colheaders = $colheaders ? @$colheaders : (); my($result); if (defined($columns)) { $rows = int(0.99 + @elements/$columns) unless defined($rows); } if (defined($rows)) { $columns = int(0.99 + @elements/$rows) unless defined($columns); } # rearrange into a pretty table $result = ""; my($row,$column); unshift(@colheaders,'') if @colheaders && @rowheaders; $result .= "" if @colheaders; for (@colheaders) { $result .= ""; } for ($row=0;$row<$rows;$row++) { $result .= ""; $result .= "" if @rowheaders; for ($column=0;$column<$columns;$column++) { $result .= "" if defined($elements[$column*$rows + $row]); } $result .= ""; } $result .= "
$_
$rowheaders[$row]" . $elements[$column*$rows + $row] . "
"; return $result; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: radio_group # Create a list of logically-linked radio buttons. # Parameters: # $name -> Common name for all the buttons. # $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the # values for each button in the group. # $default -> (optional) Value of the button to turn on by default. Pass '-' # to turn _nothing_ on. # $linebreak -> (optional) Set to true to place linebreaks # between the buttons. # $labels -> (optional) # A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox # in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label". # Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels. # Returns: # An ARRAY containing a series of fields #### 'radio_group' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub radio_group { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); $self->_box_group('radio',@p); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: checkbox_group # Create a list of logically-linked checkboxes. # Parameters: # $name -> Common name for all the check boxes # $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the # values for each checkbox in the group. # $defaults -> (optional) # 1. If a pointer to a regular array of checkbox values, # then this will be used to decide which # checkboxes to turn on by default. # 2. If a scalar, will be assumed to hold the # value of a single checkbox in the group to turn on. # $linebreak -> (optional) Set to true to place linebreaks # between the buttons. # $labels -> (optional) # A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox # in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label". # Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels. # Returns: # An ARRAY containing a series of fields #### 'checkbox_group' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub checkbox_group { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); $self->_box_group('checkbox',@p); } END_OF_FUNC '_box_group' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _box_group { my $self = shift; my $box_type = shift; my($name,$values,$defaults,$linebreak,$labels,$labelattributes, $attributes,$rows,$columns,$rowheaders,$colheaders, $override,$nolabels,$tabindex,$disabled,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUES,VALUE],[DEFAULT,DEFAULTS],LINEBREAK,LABELS,LABELATTRIBUTES, ATTRIBUTES,ROWS,[COLUMNS,COLS],[ROWHEADERS,ROWHEADER],[COLHEADERS,COLHEADER], [OVERRIDE,FORCE],NOLABELS,TABINDEX,DISABLED ],@_); my($result,$checked,@elements,@values); @values = $self->_set_values_and_labels($values,\$labels,$name); my %checked = $self->previous_or_default($name,$defaults,$override); # If no check array is specified, check the first by default $checked{$values[0]}++ if $box_type eq 'radio' && !%checked; $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name); my %tabs = (); if ($TABINDEX && $tabindex) { if (!ref $tabindex) { $self->element_tab($tabindex); } elsif (ref $tabindex eq 'ARRAY') { %tabs = map {$_=>$self->element_tab} @$tabindex; } elsif (ref $tabindex eq 'HASH') { %tabs = %$tabindex; } } %tabs = map {$_=>$self->element_tab} @values unless %tabs; my $other = @other ? "@other " : ''; my $radio_checked; # for disabling groups of radio/checkbox buttons my %disabled; for (@{$disabled}) { $disabled{$_}=1; } for (@values) { my $disable=""; if ($disabled{$_}) { $disable="disabled='1'"; } my $checkit = $self->_checked($box_type eq 'radio' ? ($checked{$_} && !$radio_checked++) : $checked{$_}); my($break); if ($linebreak) { $break = $XHTML ? "
" : "
"; } else { $break = ''; } my($label)=''; unless (defined($nolabels) && $nolabels) { $label = $_; $label = $labels->{$_} if defined($labels) && defined($labels->{$_}); $label = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label,1); $label = "$label" if $disabled{$_}; } my $attribs = $self->_set_attributes($_, $attributes); my $tab = $tabs{$_}; $_=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_); if ($XHTML) { push @elements, CGI::label($labelattributes, qq($label)).${break}; } else { push(@elements,qq/${label}${break}/); } } $self->register_parameter($name); return wantarray ? @elements : "@elements" unless defined($columns) || defined($rows); return _tableize($rows,$columns,$rowheaders,$colheaders,@elements); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: popup_menu # Create a popup menu. # Parameters: # $name -> Name for all the menu # $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the # text of each menu item. # $default -> (optional) Default item to display # $labels -> (optional) # A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox # in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label". # Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels. # Returns: # A string containing the definition of a popup menu. #### 'popup_menu' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub popup_menu { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name,$values,$default,$labels,$attributes,$override,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUES,VALUE],[DEFAULT,DEFAULTS],LABELS, ATTRIBUTES,[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p); my($result,%selected); if (!$override && defined($self->param($name))) { $selected{$self->param($name)}++; } elsif (defined $default) { %selected = map {$_=>1} ref($default) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$default : $default; } $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name); my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; my(@values); @values = $self->_set_values_and_labels($values,\$labels,$name); $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); $name = q{} if ! defined $name; $result = qq/"; return $result; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: optgroup # Create a optgroup. # Parameters: # $name -> Label for the group # $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the # values for each option line in the group. # $labels -> (optional) # A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each item # in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label". # Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels. # $labeled -> (optional) # A true value indicates the value should be used as the label attribute # in the option elements. # The label attribute specifies the option label presented to the user. # This defaults to the content of the \n/; for (@values) { if (/_set_attributes($_, $attributes); my($label) = $_; $label = $labels->{$_} if defined($labels) && defined($labels->{$_}); $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label); my($value)=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_,1); $result .= $labeled ? $novals ? "$label\n" : "$label\n" : $novals ? "$label\n" : "$label\n"; } } $result .= ""; return $result; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: scrolling_list # Create a scrolling list. # Parameters: # $name -> name for the list # $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the # values for each option line in the list. # $defaults -> (optional) # 1. If a pointer to a regular array of options, # then this will be used to decide which # lines to turn on by default. # 2. Otherwise holds the value of the single line to turn on. # $size -> (optional) Size of the list. # $multiple -> (optional) If set, allow multiple selections. # $labels -> (optional) # A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox # in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label". # Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels. # Returns: # A string containing the definition of a scrolling list. #### 'scrolling_list' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub scrolling_list { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name,$values,$defaults,$size,$multiple,$labels,$attributes,$override,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUES,VALUE],[DEFAULTS,DEFAULT], SIZE,MULTIPLE,LABELS,ATTRIBUTES,[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p); my($result,@values); @values = $self->_set_values_and_labels($values,\$labels,$name); $size = $size || scalar(@values); my(%selected) = $self->previous_or_default($name,$defaults,$override); my($is_multiple) = $multiple ? qq/ multiple="multiple"/ : ''; my($has_size) = $size ? qq/ size="$size"/: ''; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name); $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex); $result = qq/"; $self->register_parameter($name); return $result; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: hidden # Parameters: # $name -> Name of the hidden field # @default -> (optional) Initial values of field (may be an array) # or # $default->[initial values of field] # Returns: # A string containing a #### 'hidden' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub hidden { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); # this is the one place where we departed from our standard # calling scheme, so we have to special-case (darn) my(@result,@value); my($name,$default,$override,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[DEFAULT,VALUE,VALUES],[OVERRIDE,FORCE]],@p); my $do_override = 0; if ( ref($p[0]) || substr($p[0],0,1) eq '-') { @value = ref($default) ? @{$default} : $default; $do_override = $override; } else { for ($default,$override,@other) { push(@value,$_) if defined($_); } undef @other; } # use previous values if override is not set my @prev = $self->param($name); @value = @prev if !$do_override && @prev; $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name); for (@value) { $_ = defined($_) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_,1) : ''; push @result,$XHTML ? qq() : qq(); } return wantarray ? @result : join('',@result); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: image_button # Parameters: # $name -> Name of the button # $src -> URL of the image source # $align -> Alignment style (TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE) # Returns: # A string containing a #### 'image_button' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub image_button { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name,$src,$alignment,@other) = rearrange([NAME,SRC,ALIGN],@p); my($align) = $alignment ? " align=\L\"$alignment\"" : ''; my($other) = @other ? " @other" : ''; $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name); return $XHTML ? qq() : qq//; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: self_url # Returns a URL containing the current script and all its # param/value pairs arranged as a query. You can use this # to create a link that, when selected, will reinvoke the # script with all its state information preserved. #### 'self_url' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub self_url { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); return $self->url('-path_info'=>1,'-query'=>1,'-full'=>1,@p); } END_OF_FUNC # This is provided as a synonym to self_url() for people unfortunate # enough to have incorporated it into their programs already! 'state' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub state { &self_url; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: url # Like self_url, but doesn't return the query string part of # the URL. #### 'url' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub url { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my ($relative,$absolute,$full,$path_info,$query,$base,$rewrite) = rearrange(['RELATIVE','ABSOLUTE','FULL',['PATH','PATH_INFO'],['QUERY','QUERY_STRING'],'BASE','REWRITE'],@p); my $url = ''; $full++ if $base || !($relative || $absolute); $rewrite++ unless defined $rewrite; my $path = $self->path_info; my $script_name = $self->script_name; my $request_uri = unescape($self->request_uri) || ''; my $query_str = $self->query_string; my $rewrite_in_use = $request_uri && $request_uri !~ /^\Q$script_name/; undef $path if $rewrite_in_use && $rewrite; # path not valid when rewriting active my $uri = $rewrite && $request_uri ? $request_uri : $script_name; $uri =~ s/\?.*$//s; # remove query string $uri =~ s/\Q$ENV{PATH_INFO}\E$// if defined $ENV{PATH_INFO}; # $uri =~ s/\Q$path\E$// if defined $path; # remove path if ($full) { my $protocol = $self->protocol(); $url = "$protocol://"; my $vh = http('x_forwarded_host') || http('host') || ''; $vh =~ s/\:\d+$//; # some clients add the port number (incorrectly). Get rid of it. $url .= $vh || server_name(); my $port = $self->virtual_port; # add the port to the url unless it's the protocol's default port $url .= ':' . $port unless (lc($protocol) eq 'http' && $port == 80) or (lc($protocol) eq 'https' && $port == 443); return $url if $base; $url .= $uri; } elsif ($relative) { ($url) = $uri =~ m!([^/]+)$!; } elsif ($absolute) { $url = $uri; } $url .= $path if $path_info and defined $path; $url .= "?$query_str" if $query and $query_str ne ''; $url ||= ''; $url =~ s/([^a-zA-Z0-9_.%;&?\/\\:+=~-])/sprintf("%%%02X",ord($1))/eg; return $url; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: cookie # Set or read a cookie from the specified name. # Cookie can then be passed to header(). # Usual rules apply to the stickiness of -value. # Parameters: # -name -> name for this cookie (optional) # -value -> value of this cookie (scalar, array or hash) # -path -> paths for which this cookie is valid (optional) # -domain -> internet domain in which this cookie is valid (optional) # -secure -> if true, cookie only passed through secure channel (optional) # -expires -> expiry date in format Wdy, DD-Mon-YYYY HH:MM:SS GMT (optional) #### 'cookie' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub cookie { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name,$value,$path,$domain,$secure,$expires,$httponly) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUE,VALUES],PATH,DOMAIN,SECURE,EXPIRES,HTTPONLY],@p); require CGI::Cookie; # if no value is supplied, then we retrieve the # value of the cookie, if any. For efficiency, we cache the parsed # cookies in our state variables. unless ( defined($value) ) { $self->{'.cookies'} = CGI::Cookie->fetch; # If no name is supplied, then retrieve the names of all our cookies. return () unless $self->{'.cookies'}; return keys %{$self->{'.cookies'}} unless $name; return () unless $self->{'.cookies'}->{$name}; return $self->{'.cookies'}->{$name}->value if defined($name) && $name ne ''; } # If we get here, we're creating a new cookie return undef unless defined($name) && $name ne ''; # this is an error my @param; push(@param,'-name'=>$name); push(@param,'-value'=>$value); push(@param,'-domain'=>$domain) if $domain; push(@param,'-path'=>$path) if $path; push(@param,'-expires'=>$expires) if $expires; push(@param,'-secure'=>$secure) if $secure; push(@param,'-httponly'=>$httponly) if $httponly; return CGI::Cookie->new(@param); } END_OF_FUNC 'parse_keywordlist' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub parse_keywordlist { my($self,$tosplit) = @_; $tosplit = unescape($tosplit); # unescape the keywords $tosplit=~tr/+/ /; # pluses to spaces my(@keywords) = split(/\s+/,$tosplit); return @keywords; } END_OF_FUNC 'param_fetch' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub param_fetch { my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); my($name) = rearrange([NAME],@p); unless (exists($self->{param}{$name})) { $self->add_parameter($name); $self->{param}{$name} = []; } return $self->{param}{$name}; } END_OF_FUNC ############################################### # OTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE ENVIRONMENT ############################################### #### Method: path_info # Return the extra virtual path information provided # after the URL (if any) #### 'path_info' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub path_info { my ($self,$info) = self_or_default(@_); if (defined($info)) { $info = "/$info" if $info ne '' && substr($info,0,1) ne '/'; $self->{'.path_info'} = $info; } elsif (! defined($self->{'.path_info'}) ) { my (undef,$path_info) = $self->_name_and_path_from_env; $self->{'.path_info'} = $path_info || ''; } return $self->{'.path_info'}; } END_OF_FUNC # This function returns a potentially modified version of SCRIPT_NAME # and PATH_INFO. Some HTTP servers do sanitise the paths in those # variables. It is the case of at least Apache 2. If for instance the # user requests: /path/./to/script.cgi/x//y/z/../x?y, Apache will set: # REQUEST_URI=/path/./to/script.cgi/x//y/z/../x?y # SCRIPT_NAME=/path/to/env.cgi # PATH_INFO=/x/y/x # # This is all fine except that some bogus CGI scripts expect # PATH_INFO=/http://foo when the user requests # http://xxx/script.cgi/http://foo # # Old versions of this module used to accomodate with those scripts, so # this is why we do this here to keep those scripts backward compatible. # Basically, we accomodate with those scripts but within limits, that is # we only try to preserve the number of / that were provided by the user # if $REQUEST_URI and "$SCRIPT_NAME$PATH_INFO" only differ by the number # of consecutive /. # # So for instance, in: http://foo/x//y/script.cgi/a//b, we'll return a # script_name of /x//y/script.cgi and a path_info of /a//b, but in: # http://foo/./x//z/script.cgi/a/../b//c, we'll return the versions # possibly sanitised by the HTTP server, so in the case of Apache 2: # script_name == /foo/x/z/script.cgi and path_info == /b/c. # # Future versions of this module may no longer do that, so one should # avoid relying on the browser, proxy, server, and CGI.pm preserving the # number of consecutive slashes as no guarantee can be made there. '_name_and_path_from_env' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _name_and_path_from_env { my $self = shift; my $script_name = $ENV{SCRIPT_NAME} || ''; my $path_info = $ENV{PATH_INFO} || ''; my $uri = $self->request_uri || ''; $uri =~ s/\?.*//s; $uri = unescape($uri); if ($uri ne "$script_name$path_info") { my $script_name_pattern = quotemeta($script_name); my $path_info_pattern = quotemeta($path_info); $script_name_pattern =~ s{(?:\\/)+}{/+}g; $path_info_pattern =~ s{(?:\\/)+}{/+}g; if ($uri =~ /^($script_name_pattern)($path_info_pattern)$/s) { # REQUEST_URI and SCRIPT_NAME . PATH_INFO only differ by the # numer of consecutive slashes, so we can extract the info from # REQUEST_URI: ($script_name, $path_info) = ($1, $2); } } return ($script_name,$path_info); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: request_method # Returns 'POST', 'GET', 'PUT' or 'HEAD' #### 'request_method' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub request_method { return (defined $ENV{'REQUEST_METHOD'}) ? $ENV{'REQUEST_METHOD'} : undef; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: content_type # Returns the content_type string #### 'content_type' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub content_type { return (defined $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'}) ? $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} : undef; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: path_translated # Return the physical path information provided # by the URL (if any) #### 'path_translated' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub path_translated { return (defined $ENV{'PATH_TRANSLATED'}) ? $ENV{'PATH_TRANSLATED'} : undef; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: request_uri # Return the literal request URI #### 'request_uri' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub request_uri { return (defined $ENV{'REQUEST_URI'}) ? $ENV{'REQUEST_URI'} : undef; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: query_string # Synthesize a query string from our current # parameters #### 'query_string' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub query_string { my($self) = self_or_default(@_); my($param,$value,@pairs); for $param ($self->param) { my($eparam) = escape($param); for $value ($self->param($param)) { $value = escape($value); next unless defined $value; push(@pairs,"$eparam=$value"); } } for (keys %{$self->{'.fieldnames'}}) { push(@pairs,".cgifields=".escape("$_")); } return join($USE_PARAM_SEMICOLONS ? ';' : '&',@pairs); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: accept # Without parameters, returns an array of the # MIME types the browser accepts. # With a single parameter equal to a MIME # type, will return undef if the browser won't # accept it, 1 if the browser accepts it but # doesn't give a preference, or a floating point # value between 0.0 and 1.0 if the browser # declares a quantitative score for it. # This handles MIME type globs correctly. #### 'Accept' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub Accept { my($self,$search) = self_or_CGI(@_); my(%prefs,$type,$pref,$pat); my(@accept) = defined $self->http('accept') ? split(',',$self->http('accept')) : (); for (@accept) { ($pref) = /q=(\d\.\d+|\d+)/; ($type) = m#(\S+/[^;]+)#; next unless $type; $prefs{$type}=$pref || 1; } return keys %prefs unless $search; # if a search type is provided, we may need to # perform a pattern matching operation. # The MIME types use a glob mechanism, which # is easily translated into a perl pattern match # First return the preference for directly supported # types: return $prefs{$search} if $prefs{$search}; # Didn't get it, so try pattern matching. for (keys %prefs) { next unless /\*/; # not a pattern match ($pat = $_) =~ s/([^\w*])/\\$1/g; # escape meta characters $pat =~ s/\*/.*/g; # turn it into a pattern return $prefs{$_} if $search=~/$pat/; } } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: user_agent # If called with no parameters, returns the user agent. # If called with one parameter, does a pattern match (case # insensitive) on the user agent. #### 'user_agent' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub user_agent { my($self,$match)=self_or_CGI(@_); my $user_agent = $self->http('user_agent'); return $user_agent unless $match && $user_agent; return $user_agent =~ /$match/i; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: raw_cookie # Returns the magic cookies for the session. # The cookies are not parsed or altered in any way, i.e. # cookies are returned exactly as given in the HTTP # headers. If a cookie name is given, only that cookie's # value is returned, otherwise the entire raw cookie # is returned. #### 'raw_cookie' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub raw_cookie { my($self,$key) = self_or_CGI(@_); require CGI::Cookie; if (defined($key)) { $self->{'.raw_cookies'} = CGI::Cookie->raw_fetch unless $self->{'.raw_cookies'}; return () unless $self->{'.raw_cookies'}; return () unless $self->{'.raw_cookies'}->{$key}; return $self->{'.raw_cookies'}->{$key}; } return $self->http('cookie') || $ENV{'COOKIE'} || ''; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: virtual_host # Return the name of the virtual_host, which # is not always the same as the server ###### 'virtual_host' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub virtual_host { my $vh = http('x_forwarded_host') || http('host') || server_name(); $vh =~ s/:\d+$//; # get rid of port number return $vh; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: remote_host # Return the name of the remote host, or its IP # address if unavailable. If this variable isn't # defined, it returns "localhost" for debugging # purposes. #### 'remote_host' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub remote_host { return $ENV{'REMOTE_HOST'} || $ENV{'REMOTE_ADDR'} || 'localhost'; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: remote_addr # Return the IP addr of the remote host. #### 'remote_addr' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub remote_addr { return $ENV{'REMOTE_ADDR'} || '127.0.0.1'; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: script_name # Return the partial URL to this script for # self-referencing scripts. Also see # self_url(), which returns a URL with all state information # preserved. #### 'script_name' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub script_name { my ($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_); if (@p) { $self->{'.script_name'} = shift @p; } elsif (!exists $self->{'.script_name'}) { my ($script_name,$path_info) = $self->_name_and_path_from_env(); $self->{'.script_name'} = $script_name; } return $self->{'.script_name'}; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: referer # Return the HTTP_REFERER: useful for generating # a GO BACK button. #### 'referer' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub referer { my($self) = self_or_CGI(@_); return $self->http('referer'); } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: server_name # Return the name of the server #### 'server_name' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub server_name { return $ENV{'SERVER_NAME'} || 'localhost'; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: server_software # Return the name of the server software #### 'server_software' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub server_software { return $ENV{'SERVER_SOFTWARE'} || 'cmdline'; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: virtual_port # Return the server port, taking virtual hosts into account #### 'virtual_port' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub virtual_port { my($self) = self_or_default(@_); my $vh = $self->http('x_forwarded_host') || $self->http('host'); my $protocol = $self->protocol; if ($vh) { return ($vh =~ /:(\d+)$/)[0] || ($protocol eq 'https' ? 443 : 80); } else { return $self->server_port(); } } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: server_port # Return the tcp/ip port the server is running on #### 'server_port' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub server_port { return $ENV{'SERVER_PORT'} || 80; # for debugging } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: server_protocol # Return the protocol (usually HTTP/1.0) #### 'server_protocol' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub server_protocol { return $ENV{'SERVER_PROTOCOL'} || 'HTTP/1.0'; # for debugging } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: http # Return the value of an HTTP variable, or # the list of variables if none provided #### 'http' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub http { my ($self,$parameter) = self_or_CGI(@_); if ( defined($parameter) ) { $parameter =~ tr/-a-z/_A-Z/; if ( $parameter =~ /^HTTP(?:_|$)/ ) { return $ENV{$parameter}; } return $ENV{"HTTP_$parameter"}; } return grep { /^HTTP(?:_|$)/ } keys %ENV; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: https # Return the value of HTTPS, or # the value of an HTTPS variable, or # the list of variables #### 'https' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub https { my ($self,$parameter) = self_or_CGI(@_); if ( defined($parameter) ) { $parameter =~ tr/-a-z/_A-Z/; if ( $parameter =~ /^HTTPS(?:_|$)/ ) { return $ENV{$parameter}; } return $ENV{"HTTPS_$parameter"}; } return wantarray ? grep { /^HTTPS(?:_|$)/ } keys %ENV : $ENV{'HTTPS'}; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: protocol # Return the protocol (http or https currently) #### 'protocol' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub protocol { local($^W)=0; my $self = shift; return 'https' if uc($self->https()) eq 'ON'; return 'https' if $self->server_port == 443; my $prot = $self->server_protocol; my($protocol,$version) = split('/',$prot); return "\L$protocol\E"; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: remote_ident # Return the identity of the remote user # (but only if his host is running identd) #### 'remote_ident' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub remote_ident { return (defined $ENV{'REMOTE_IDENT'}) ? $ENV{'REMOTE_IDENT'} : undef; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: auth_type # Return the type of use verification/authorization in use, if any. #### 'auth_type' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub auth_type { return (defined $ENV{'AUTH_TYPE'}) ? $ENV{'AUTH_TYPE'} : undef; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: remote_user # Return the authorization name used for user # verification. #### 'remote_user' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub remote_user { return (defined $ENV{'REMOTE_USER'}) ? $ENV{'REMOTE_USER'} : undef; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: user_name # Try to return the remote user's name by hook or by # crook #### 'user_name' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub user_name { my ($self) = self_or_CGI(@_); return $self->http('from') || $ENV{'REMOTE_IDENT'} || $ENV{'REMOTE_USER'}; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: nosticky # Set or return the NOSTICKY global flag #### 'nosticky' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub nosticky { my ($self,$param) = self_or_CGI(@_); $CGI::NOSTICKY = $param if defined($param); return $CGI::NOSTICKY; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: nph # Set or return the NPH global flag #### 'nph' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub nph { my ($self,$param) = self_or_CGI(@_); $CGI::NPH = $param if defined($param); return $CGI::NPH; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: private_tempfiles # Set or return the private_tempfiles global flag #### 'private_tempfiles' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub private_tempfiles { my ($self,$param) = self_or_CGI(@_); $CGI::PRIVATE_TEMPFILES = $param if defined($param); return $CGI::PRIVATE_TEMPFILES; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: close_upload_files # Set or return the close_upload_files global flag #### 'close_upload_files' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub close_upload_files { my ($self,$param) = self_or_CGI(@_); $CGI::CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES = $param if defined($param); return $CGI::CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES; } END_OF_FUNC #### Method: default_dtd # Set or return the default_dtd global #### 'default_dtd' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub default_dtd { my ($self,$param,$param2) = self_or_CGI(@_); if (defined $param2 && defined $param) { $CGI::DEFAULT_DTD = [ $param, $param2 ]; } elsif (defined $param) { $CGI::DEFAULT_DTD = $param; } return $CGI::DEFAULT_DTD; } END_OF_FUNC # -------------- really private subroutines ----------------- '_maybe_escapeHTML' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _maybe_escapeHTML { # hack to work around earlier hacks push @_,$_[0] if @_==1 && $_[0] eq 'CGI'; my ($self,$toencode,$newlinestoo) = CGI::self_or_default(@_); return undef unless defined($toencode); return $toencode if ref($self) && !$self->{'escape'}; return $self->escapeHTML($toencode, $newlinestoo); } END_OF_FUNC 'previous_or_default' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub previous_or_default { my($self,$name,$defaults,$override) = @_; my(%selected); if (!$override && ($self->{'.fieldnames'}->{$name} || defined($self->param($name)) ) ) { $selected{$_}++ for $self->param($name); } elsif (defined($defaults) && ref($defaults) && (ref($defaults) eq 'ARRAY')) { $selected{$_}++ for @{$defaults}; } else { $selected{$defaults}++ if defined($defaults); } return %selected; } END_OF_FUNC 'register_parameter' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub register_parameter { my($self,$param) = @_; $self->{'.parametersToAdd'}->{$param}++; } END_OF_FUNC 'get_fields' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub get_fields { my($self) = @_; return $self->CGI::hidden('-name'=>'.cgifields', '-values'=>[keys %{$self->{'.parametersToAdd'}}], '-override'=>1); } END_OF_FUNC 'read_from_cmdline' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub read_from_cmdline { my($input,@words); my($query_string); my($subpath); if ($DEBUG && @ARGV) { @words = @ARGV; } elsif ($DEBUG > 1) { require "shellwords.pl"; print STDERR "(offline mode: enter name=value pairs on standard input; press ^D or ^Z when done)\n"; chomp(@lines = ); # remove newlines $input = join(" ",@lines); @words = &shellwords($input); } for (@words) { s/\\=/%3D/g; s/\\&/%26/g; } if ("@words"=~/=/) { $query_string = join('&',@words); } else { $query_string = join('+',@words); } if ($query_string =~ /^(.*?)\?(.*)$/) { $query_string = $2; $subpath = $1; } return { 'query_string' => $query_string, 'subpath' => $subpath }; } END_OF_FUNC ##### # subroutine: read_multipart # # Read multipart data and store it into our parameters. # An interesting feature is that if any of the parts is a file, we # create a temporary file and open up a filehandle on it so that the # caller can read from it if necessary. ##### 'read_multipart' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub read_multipart { my($self,$boundary,$length) = @_; my($buffer) = $self->new_MultipartBuffer($boundary,$length); return unless $buffer; my(%header,$body); my $filenumber = 0; while (!$buffer->eof) { %header = $buffer->readHeader; unless (%header) { $self->cgi_error("400 Bad request (malformed multipart POST)"); return; } $header{'Content-Disposition'} ||= ''; # quench uninit variable warning my($param)= $header{'Content-Disposition'}=~/[\s;]name="([^"]*)"/; $param .= $TAINTED; # See RFC 1867, 2183, 2045 # NB: File content will be loaded into memory should # content-disposition parsing fail. my ($filename) = $header{'Content-Disposition'} =~/ filename=(("[^"]*")|([a-z\d!\#'\*\+,\.^_\`\{\}\|\~]*))/i; $filename ||= ''; # quench uninit variable warning $filename =~ s/^"([^"]*)"$/$1/; # Test for Opera's multiple upload feature my($multipart) = ( defined( $header{'Content-Type'} ) && $header{'Content-Type'} =~ /multipart\/mixed/ ) ? 1 : 0; # add this parameter to our list $self->add_parameter($param); # If no filename specified, then just read the data and assign it # to our parameter list. if ( ( !defined($filename) || $filename eq '' ) && !$multipart ) { my($value) = $buffer->readBody; $value .= $TAINTED; push(@{$self->{param}{$param}},$value); next; } my ($tmpfile,$tmp,$filehandle); UPLOADS: { # If we get here, then we are dealing with a potentially large # uploaded form. Save the data to a temporary file, then open # the file for reading. # skip the file if uploads disabled if ($DISABLE_UPLOADS) { while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) { } last UPLOADS; } # set the filename to some recognizable value if ( ( !defined($filename) || $filename eq '' ) && $multipart ) { $filename = "multipart/mixed"; } # choose a relatively unpredictable tmpfile sequence number my $seqno = unpack("%16C*",join('',localtime,grep {defined $_} values %ENV)); for (my $cnt=10;$cnt>0;$cnt--) { next unless $tmpfile = CGITempFile->new($seqno); $tmp = $tmpfile->as_string; last if defined($filehandle = Fh->new($filename,$tmp,$PRIVATE_TEMPFILES)); $seqno += int rand(100); } die "CGI open of tmpfile: $!\n" unless defined $filehandle; $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode && defined fileno($filehandle); # if this is an multipart/mixed attachment, save the header # together with the body for later parsing with an external # MIME parser module if ( $multipart ) { for ( keys %header ) { print $filehandle "$_: $header{$_}${CRLF}"; } print $filehandle "${CRLF}"; } my ($data); local($\) = ''; my $totalbytes = 0; while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) { if (defined $self->{'.upload_hook'}) { $totalbytes += length($data); &{$self->{'.upload_hook'}}($filename ,$data, $totalbytes, $self->{'.upload_data'}); } print $filehandle $data if ($self->{'use_tempfile'}); } # back up to beginning of file seek($filehandle,0,0); ## Close the filehandle if requested this allows a multipart MIME ## upload to contain many files, and we won't die due to too many ## open file handles. The user can access the files using the hash ## below. close $filehandle if $CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES; $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode; # Save some information about the uploaded file where we can get # at it later. # Use the typeglob as the key, as this is guaranteed to be # unique for each filehandle. Don't use the file descriptor as # this will be re-used for each filehandle if the # close_upload_files feature is used. $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filehandle}= { hndl => $filehandle, name => $tmpfile, info => {%header}, }; push(@{$self->{param}{$param}},$filehandle); } } } END_OF_FUNC ##### # subroutine: read_multipart_related # # Read multipart/related data and store it into our parameters. The # first parameter sets the start of the data. The part identified by # this Content-ID will not be stored as a file upload, but will be # returned by this method. All other parts will be available as file # uploads accessible by their Content-ID ##### 'read_multipart_related' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub read_multipart_related { my($self,$start,$boundary,$length) = @_; my($buffer) = $self->new_MultipartBuffer($boundary,$length); return unless $buffer; my(%header,$body); my $filenumber = 0; my $returnvalue; while (!$buffer->eof) { %header = $buffer->readHeader; unless (%header) { $self->cgi_error("400 Bad request (malformed multipart POST)"); return; } my($param) = $header{'Content-ID'}=~/\<([^\>]*)\>/; $param .= $TAINTED; # If this is the start part, then just read the data and assign it # to our return variable. if ( $param eq $start ) { $returnvalue = $buffer->readBody; $returnvalue .= $TAINTED; next; } # add this parameter to our list $self->add_parameter($param); my ($tmpfile,$tmp,$filehandle); UPLOADS: { # If we get here, then we are dealing with a potentially large # uploaded form. Save the data to a temporary file, then open # the file for reading. # skip the file if uploads disabled if ($DISABLE_UPLOADS) { while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) { } last UPLOADS; } # choose a relatively unpredictable tmpfile sequence number my $seqno = unpack("%16C*",join('',localtime,grep {defined $_} values %ENV)); for (my $cnt=10;$cnt>0;$cnt--) { next unless $tmpfile = CGITempFile->new($seqno); $tmp = $tmpfile->as_string; last if defined($filehandle = Fh->new($param,$tmp,$PRIVATE_TEMPFILES)); $seqno += int rand(100); } die "CGI open of tmpfile: $!\n" unless defined $filehandle; $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode && defined fileno($filehandle); my ($data); local($\) = ''; my $totalbytes; while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) { if (defined $self->{'.upload_hook'}) { $totalbytes += length($data); &{$self->{'.upload_hook'}}($param ,$data, $totalbytes, $self->{'.upload_data'}); } print $filehandle $data if ($self->{'use_tempfile'}); } # back up to beginning of file seek($filehandle,0,0); ## Close the filehandle if requested this allows a multipart MIME ## upload to contain many files, and we won't die due to too many ## open file handles. The user can access the files using the hash ## below. close $filehandle if $CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES; $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode; # Save some information about the uploaded file where we can get # at it later. # Use the typeglob as the key, as this is guaranteed to be # unique for each filehandle. Don't use the file descriptor as # this will be re-used for each filehandle if the # close_upload_files feature is used. $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filehandle}= { hndl => $filehandle, name => $tmpfile, info => {%header}, }; push(@{$self->{param}{$param}},$filehandle); } } return $returnvalue; } END_OF_FUNC 'upload' =><<'END_OF_FUNC', sub upload { my($self,$param_name) = self_or_default(@_); my @param = grep {ref($_) && defined(fileno($_))} $self->param($param_name); return unless @param; return wantarray ? @param : $param[0]; } END_OF_FUNC 'tmpFileName' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub tmpFileName { my($self,$filename) = self_or_default(@_); return $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filename}->{name} ? $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filename}->{name}->as_string : ''; } END_OF_FUNC 'uploadInfo' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub uploadInfo { my($self,$filename) = self_or_default(@_); return $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filename}->{info}; } END_OF_FUNC # internal routine, don't use '_set_values_and_labels' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _set_values_and_labels { my $self = shift; my ($v,$l,$n) = @_; $$l = $v if ref($v) eq 'HASH' && !ref($$l); return $self->param($n) if !defined($v); return $v if !ref($v); return ref($v) eq 'HASH' ? keys %$v : @$v; } END_OF_FUNC # internal routine, don't use '_set_attributes' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _set_attributes { my $self = shift; my($element, $attributes) = @_; return '' unless defined($attributes->{$element}); $attribs = ' '; for my $attrib (keys %{$attributes->{$element}}) { (my $clean_attrib = $attrib) =~ s/^-//; $attribs .= "@{[lc($clean_attrib)]}=\"$attributes->{$element}{$attrib}\" "; } $attribs =~ s/ $//; return $attribs; } END_OF_FUNC '_compile_all' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub _compile_all { for (@_) { next if defined(&$_); $AUTOLOAD = "CGI::$_"; _compile(); } } END_OF_FUNC ); END_OF_AUTOLOAD ; ######################################################### # Globals and stubs for other packages that we use. ######################################################### ################### Fh -- lightweight filehandle ############### package Fh; use overload '""' => \&asString, 'cmp' => \&compare, 'fallback'=>1; $FH='fh00000'; *Fh::AUTOLOAD = \&CGI::AUTOLOAD; sub DESTROY { my $self = shift; close $self; } $AUTOLOADED_ROUTINES = ''; # prevent -w error $AUTOLOADED_ROUTINES=<<'END_OF_AUTOLOAD'; %SUBS = ( 'asString' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub asString { my $self = shift; # get rid of package name (my $i = $$self) =~ s/^\*(\w+::fh\d{5})+//; $i =~ s/%(..)/ chr(hex($1)) /eg; return $i.$CGI::TAINTED; # BEGIN DEAD CODE # This was an extremely clever patch that allowed "use strict refs". # Unfortunately it relied on another bug that caused leaky file descriptors. # The underlying bug has been fixed, so this no longer works. However # "strict refs" still works for some reason. # my $self = shift; # return ${*{$self}{SCALAR}}; # END DEAD CODE } END_OF_FUNC 'compare' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub compare { my $self = shift; my $value = shift; return "$self" cmp $value; } END_OF_FUNC 'new' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub new { my($pack,$name,$file,$delete) = @_; _setup_symbols(@SAVED_SYMBOLS) if @SAVED_SYMBOLS; require Fcntl unless defined &Fcntl::O_RDWR; (my $safename = $name) =~ s/([':%])/ sprintf '%%%02X', ord $1 /eg; my $fv = ++$FH . $safename; my $ref = \*{"Fh::$fv"}; # Note this same regex is also used elsewhere in the same file for CGITempFile::new $file =~ m!^([a-zA-Z0-9_ \'\":/.\$\\\+-]+)$! || return; my $safe = $1; sysopen($ref,$safe,Fcntl::O_RDWR()|Fcntl::O_CREAT()|Fcntl::O_EXCL(),0600) || return; unlink($safe) if $delete; CORE::delete $Fh::{$fv}; return bless $ref,$pack; } END_OF_FUNC 'handle' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub handle { my $self = shift; eval "require IO::Handle" unless IO::Handle->can('new_from_fd'); return IO::Handle->new_from_fd(fileno $self,"<"); } END_OF_FUNC ); END_OF_AUTOLOAD ######################## MultipartBuffer #################### package MultipartBuffer; use constant DEBUG => 0; # how many bytes to read at a time. We use # a 4K buffer by default. $INITIAL_FILLUNIT = 1024 * 4; $TIMEOUT = 240*60; # 4 hour timeout for big files $SPIN_LOOP_MAX = 2000; # bug fix for some Netscape servers $CRLF=$CGI::CRLF; #reuse the autoload function *MultipartBuffer::AUTOLOAD = \&CGI::AUTOLOAD; # avoid autoloader warnings sub DESTROY {} ############################################################################### ################# THESE FUNCTIONS ARE AUTOLOADED ON DEMAND #################### ############################################################################### $AUTOLOADED_ROUTINES = ''; # prevent -w error $AUTOLOADED_ROUTINES=<<'END_OF_AUTOLOAD'; %SUBS = ( 'new' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub new { my($package,$interface,$boundary,$length) = @_; $FILLUNIT = $INITIAL_FILLUNIT; $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($IN); # if $CGI::needs_binmode; # just do it always # If the user types garbage into the file upload field, # then Netscape passes NOTHING to the server (not good). # We may hang on this read in that case. So we implement # a read timeout. If nothing is ready to read # by then, we return. # Netscape seems to be a little bit unreliable # about providing boundary strings. my $boundary_read = 0; if ($boundary) { # Under the MIME spec, the boundary consists of the # characters "--" PLUS the Boundary string # BUG: IE 3.01 on the Macintosh uses just the boundary -- not # the two extra hyphens. We do a special case here on the user-agent!!!! $boundary = "--$boundary" unless CGI::user_agent('MSIE\s+3\.0[12];\s*Mac|DreamPassport'); } else { # otherwise we find it ourselves my($old); ($old,$/) = ($/,$CRLF); # read a CRLF-delimited line $boundary = ; # BUG: This won't work correctly under mod_perl $length -= length($boundary); chomp($boundary); # remove the CRLF $/ = $old; # restore old line separator $boundary_read++; } my $self = {LENGTH=>$length, CHUNKED=>!$length, BOUNDARY=>$boundary, INTERFACE=>$interface, BUFFER=>'', }; $FILLUNIT = length($boundary) if length($boundary) > $FILLUNIT; my $retval = bless $self,ref $package || $package; # Read the preamble and the topmost (boundary) line plus the CRLF. unless ($boundary_read) { while ($self->read(0)) { } } die "Malformed multipart POST: data truncated\n" if $self->eof; return $retval; } END_OF_FUNC 'readHeader' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub readHeader { my($self) = @_; my($end); my($ok) = 0; my($bad) = 0; local($CRLF) = "\015\012" if $CGI::OS eq 'VMS' || $CGI::EBCDIC; do { $self->fillBuffer($FILLUNIT); $ok++ if ($end = index($self->{BUFFER},"${CRLF}${CRLF}")) >= 0; $ok++ if $self->{BUFFER} eq ''; $bad++ if !$ok && $self->{LENGTH} <= 0; # this was a bad idea # $FILLUNIT *= 2 if length($self->{BUFFER}) >= $FILLUNIT; } until $ok || $bad; return () if $bad; #EBCDIC NOTE: translate header into EBCDIC, but watch out for continuation lines! my($header) = substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$end+2); substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$end+4) = ''; my %return; if ($CGI::EBCDIC) { warn "untranslated header=$header\n" if DEBUG; $header = CGI::Util::ascii2ebcdic($header); warn "translated header=$header\n" if DEBUG; } # See RFC 2045 Appendix A and RFC 822 sections 3.4.8 # (Folding Long Header Fields), 3.4.3 (Comments) # and 3.4.5 (Quoted-Strings). my $token = '[-\w!\#$%&\'*+.^_\`|{}~]'; $header=~s/$CRLF\s+/ /og; # merge continuation lines while ($header=~/($token+):\s+([^$CRLF]*)/mgox) { my ($field_name,$field_value) = ($1,$2); $field_name =~ s/\b(\w)/uc($1)/eg; #canonicalize $return{$field_name}=$field_value; } return %return; } END_OF_FUNC # This reads and returns the body as a single scalar value. 'readBody' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub readBody { my($self) = @_; my($data); my($returnval)=''; #EBCDIC NOTE: want to translate returnval into EBCDIC HERE while (defined($data = $self->read)) { $returnval .= $data; } if ($CGI::EBCDIC) { warn "untranslated body=$returnval\n" if DEBUG; $returnval = CGI::Util::ascii2ebcdic($returnval); warn "translated body=$returnval\n" if DEBUG; } return $returnval; } END_OF_FUNC # This will read $bytes or until the boundary is hit, whichever happens # first. After the boundary is hit, we return undef. The next read will # skip over the boundary and begin reading again; 'read' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub read { my($self,$bytes) = @_; # default number of bytes to read $bytes = $bytes || $FILLUNIT; # Fill up our internal buffer in such a way that the boundary # is never split between reads. $self->fillBuffer($bytes); my $boundary_start = $CGI::EBCDIC ? CGI::Util::ebcdic2ascii($self->{BOUNDARY}) : $self->{BOUNDARY}; my $boundary_end = $CGI::EBCDIC ? CGI::Util::ebcdic2ascii($self->{BOUNDARY}.'--') : $self->{BOUNDARY}.'--'; # Find the boundary in the buffer (it may not be there). my $start = index($self->{BUFFER},$boundary_start); warn "boundary=$self->{BOUNDARY} length=$self->{LENGTH} start=$start\n" if DEBUG; # protect against malformed multipart POST operations die "Malformed multipart POST\n" unless $self->{CHUNKED} || ($start >= 0 || $self->{LENGTH} > 0); #EBCDIC NOTE: want to translate boundary search into ASCII here. # If the boundary begins the data, then skip past it # and return undef. if ($start == 0) { # clear us out completely if we've hit the last boundary. if (index($self->{BUFFER},$boundary_end)==0) { $self->{BUFFER}=''; $self->{LENGTH}=0; return undef; } # just remove the boundary. substr($self->{BUFFER},0,length($boundary_start))=''; $self->{BUFFER} =~ s/^\012\015?//; return undef; } my $bytesToReturn; if ($start > 0) { # read up to the boundary $bytesToReturn = $start-2 > $bytes ? $bytes : $start; } else { # read the requested number of bytes # leave enough bytes in the buffer to allow us to read # the boundary. Thanks to Kevin Hendrick for finding # this one. $bytesToReturn = $bytes - (length($boundary_start)+1); } my $returnval=substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$bytesToReturn); substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$bytesToReturn)=''; # If we hit the boundary, remove the CRLF from the end. return ($bytesToReturn==$start) ? substr($returnval,0,-2) : $returnval; } END_OF_FUNC # This fills up our internal buffer in such a way that the # boundary is never split between reads 'fillBuffer' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub fillBuffer { my($self,$bytes) = @_; return unless $self->{CHUNKED} || $self->{LENGTH}; my($boundaryLength) = length($self->{BOUNDARY}); my($bufferLength) = length($self->{BUFFER}); my($bytesToRead) = $bytes - $bufferLength + $boundaryLength + 2; $bytesToRead = $self->{LENGTH} if !$self->{CHUNKED} && $self->{LENGTH} < $bytesToRead; # Try to read some data. We may hang here if the browser is screwed up. my $bytesRead = $self->{INTERFACE}->read_from_client(\$self->{BUFFER}, $bytesToRead, $bufferLength); warn "bytesToRead=$bytesToRead, bufferLength=$bufferLength, buffer=$self->{BUFFER}\n" if DEBUG; $self->{BUFFER} = '' unless defined $self->{BUFFER}; # An apparent bug in the Apache server causes the read() # to return zero bytes repeatedly without blocking if the # remote user aborts during a file transfer. I don't know how # they manage this, but the workaround is to abort if we get # more than SPIN_LOOP_MAX consecutive zero reads. if ($bytesRead <= 0) { die "CGI.pm: Server closed socket during multipart read (client aborted?).\n" if ($self->{ZERO_LOOP_COUNTER}++ >= $SPIN_LOOP_MAX); } else { $self->{ZERO_LOOP_COUNTER}=0; } $self->{LENGTH} -= $bytesRead if !$self->{CHUNKED} && $bytesRead; } END_OF_FUNC # Return true when we've finished reading 'eof' => <<'END_OF_FUNC' sub eof { my($self) = @_; return 1 if (length($self->{BUFFER}) == 0) && ($self->{LENGTH} <= 0); undef; } END_OF_FUNC ); END_OF_AUTOLOAD #################################################################################### ################################## TEMPORARY FILES ################################# #################################################################################### package CGITempFile; sub find_tempdir { $SL = $CGI::SL; $MAC = $CGI::OS eq 'MACINTOSH'; my ($vol) = $MAC ? MacPerl::Volumes() =~ /:(.*)/ : ""; unless (defined $TMPDIRECTORY) { @TEMP=("${SL}usr${SL}tmp","${SL}var${SL}tmp", "C:${SL}temp","${SL}tmp","${SL}temp", "${vol}${SL}Temporary Items", "${SL}WWW_ROOT", "${SL}SYS\$SCRATCH", "C:${SL}system${SL}temp"); if( $CGI::OS eq 'WINDOWS' ){ # PeterH: These evars may not exist if this is invoked within a service and untainting # is in effect - with 'use warnings' the undefined array entries causes Perl to die unshift(@TEMP,$ENV{TEMP}) if defined $ENV{TEMP}; unshift(@TEMP,$ENV{TMP}) if defined $ENV{TMP}; unshift(@TEMP,$ENV{WINDIR} . $SL . 'TEMP') if defined $ENV{WINDIR}; } unshift(@TEMP,$ENV{'TMPDIR'}) if defined $ENV{'TMPDIR'}; # this feature was supposed to provide per-user tmpfiles, but # it is problematic. # unshift(@TEMP,(getpwuid($<))[7].'/tmp') if $CGI::OS eq 'UNIX'; # Rob: getpwuid() is unfortunately UNIX specific. On brain dead OS'es this # : can generate a 'getpwuid() not implemented' exception, even though # : it's never called. Found under DOS/Win with the DJGPP perl port. # : Refer to getpwuid() only at run-time if we're fortunate and have UNIX. # unshift(@TEMP,(eval {(getpwuid($>))[7]}).'/tmp') if $CGI::OS eq 'UNIX' and $> != 0; for (@TEMP) { do {$TMPDIRECTORY = $_; last} if -d $_ && -w _; } } $TMPDIRECTORY = $MAC ? "" : "." unless $TMPDIRECTORY; } find_tempdir(); $MAXTRIES = 5000; # cute feature, but overload implementation broke it # %OVERLOAD = ('""'=>'as_string'); *CGITempFile::AUTOLOAD = \&CGI::AUTOLOAD; sub DESTROY { my($self) = @_; $$self =~ m!^([a-zA-Z0-9_ \'\":/.\$\\~-]+)$! || return; my $safe = $1; # untaint operation unlink $safe; # get rid of the file } ############################################################################### ################# THESE FUNCTIONS ARE AUTOLOADED ON DEMAND #################### ############################################################################### $AUTOLOADED_ROUTINES = ''; # prevent -w error $AUTOLOADED_ROUTINES=<<'END_OF_AUTOLOAD'; %SUBS = ( 'new' => <<'END_OF_FUNC', sub new { my($package,$sequence) = @_; my $filename; find_tempdir() unless -w $TMPDIRECTORY; for (my $i = 0; $i < $MAXTRIES; $i++) { last if ! -f ($filename = sprintf("\%s${SL}CGItemp%d", $TMPDIRECTORY, $sequence++)); } # check that it is a more-or-less valid filename # Note this same regex is also used elsewhere in the same file for Fh::new return unless $filename =~ m!^([a-zA-Z0-9_ \'\":/.\$\\\+-]+)$!; # this used to untaint, now it doesn't # $filename = $1; return bless \$filename; } END_OF_FUNC 'as_string' => <<'END_OF_FUNC' sub as_string { my($self) = @_; return $$self; } END_OF_FUNC ); END_OF_AUTOLOAD package CGI; # We get a whole bunch of warnings about "possibly uninitialized variables" # when running with the -w switch. Touch them all once to get rid of the # warnings. This is ugly and I hate it. if ($^W) { $CGI::CGI = ''; $CGI::CGI=<new; # Process an HTTP request @values = $q->param('form_field'); $fh = $q->upload('file_field'); $riddle = $query->cookie('riddle_name'); %answers = $query->cookie('answers'); # Prepare various HTTP responses print $q->header(); print $q->header('application/json'); $cookie1 = $q->cookie(-name=>'riddle_name', -value=>"The Sphynx's Question"); $cookie2 = $q->cookie(-name=>'answers', -value=>\%answers); print $q->header( -type => 'image/gif', -expires => '+3d', -cookie => [$cookie1,$cookie2] ); print $q->redirect('http://somewhere.else/in/movie/land'); =head1 DESCRIPTION CGI.pm is a stable, complete and mature solution for processing and preparing HTTP requests and responses. Major features including processing form submissions, file uploads, reading and writing cookies, query string generation and manipulation, and processing and preparing HTTP headers. Some HTML generation utilities are included as well. CGI.pm performs very well in in a vanilla CGI.pm environment and also comes with built-in support for mod_perl and mod_perl2 as well as FastCGI. It has the benefit of having developed and refined over 10 years with input from dozens of contributors and being deployed on thousands of websites. CGI.pm has been included in the Perl distribution since Perl 5.4, and has become a de-facto standard. =head2 PROGRAMMING STYLE There are two styles of programming with CGI.pm, an object-oriented style and a function-oriented style. In the object-oriented style you create one or more CGI objects and then use object methods to create the various elements of the page. Each CGI object starts out with the list of named parameters that were passed to your CGI script by the server. You can modify the objects, save them to a file or database and recreate them. Because each object corresponds to the "state" of the CGI script, and because each object's parameter list is independent of the others, this allows you to save the state of the script and restore it later. For example, using the object oriented style, here is how you create a simple "Hello World" HTML page: #!/usr/local/bin/perl -w use CGI; # load CGI routines $q = CGI->new; # create new CGI object print $q->header, # create the HTTP header $q->start_html('hello world'), # start the HTML $q->h1('hello world'), # level 1 header $q->end_html; # end the HTML In the function-oriented style, there is one default CGI object that you rarely deal with directly. Instead you just call functions to retrieve CGI parameters, create HTML tags, manage cookies, and so on. This provides you with a cleaner programming interface, but limits you to using one CGI object at a time. The following example prints the same page, but uses the function-oriented interface. The main differences are that we now need to import a set of functions into our name space (usually the "standard" functions), and we don't need to create the CGI object. #!/usr/local/bin/perl use CGI qw/:standard/; # load standard CGI routines print header, # create the HTTP header start_html('hello world'), # start the HTML h1('hello world'), # level 1 header end_html; # end the HTML The examples in this document mainly use the object-oriented style. See HOW TO IMPORT FUNCTIONS for important information on function-oriented programming in CGI.pm =head2 CALLING CGI.PM ROUTINES Most CGI.pm routines accept several arguments, sometimes as many as 20 optional ones! To simplify this interface, all routines use a named argument calling style that looks like this: print $q->header(-type=>'image/gif',-expires=>'+3d'); Each argument name is preceded by a dash. Neither case nor order matters in the argument list. -type, -Type, and -TYPE are all acceptable. In fact, only the first argument needs to begin with a dash. If a dash is present in the first argument, CGI.pm assumes dashes for the subsequent ones. Several routines are commonly called with just one argument. In the case of these routines you can provide the single argument without an argument name. header() happens to be one of these routines. In this case, the single argument is the document type. print $q->header('text/html'); Other such routines are documented below. Sometimes named arguments expect a scalar, sometimes a reference to an array, and sometimes a reference to a hash. Often, you can pass any type of argument and the routine will do whatever is most appropriate. For example, the param() routine is used to set a CGI parameter to a single or a multi-valued value. The two cases are shown below: $q->param(-name=>'veggie',-value=>'tomato'); $q->param(-name=>'veggie',-value=>['tomato','tomahto','potato','potahto']); A large number of routines in CGI.pm actually aren't specifically defined in the module, but are generated automatically as needed. These are the "HTML shortcuts," routines that generate HTML tags for use in dynamically-generated pages. HTML tags have both attributes (the attribute="value" pairs within the tag itself) and contents (the part between the opening and closing pairs.) To distinguish between attributes and contents, CGI.pm uses the convention of passing HTML attributes as a hash reference as the first argument, and the contents, if any, as any subsequent arguments. It works out like this: Code Generated HTML ---- -------------- h1()

h1('some','contents');

some contents

h1({-align=>left});

h1({-align=>left},'contents');

contents

HTML tags are described in more detail later. Many newcomers to CGI.pm are puzzled by the difference between the calling conventions for the HTML shortcuts, which require curly braces around the HTML tag attributes, and the calling conventions for other routines, which manage to generate attributes without the curly brackets. Don't be confused. As a convenience the curly braces are optional in all but the HTML shortcuts. If you like, you can use curly braces when calling any routine that takes named arguments. For example: print $q->header( {-type=>'image/gif',-expires=>'+3d'} ); If you use the B<-w> switch, you will be warned that some CGI.pm argument names conflict with built-in Perl functions. The most frequent of these is the -values argument, used to create multi-valued menus, radio button clusters and the like. To get around this warning, you have several choices: =over 4 =item 1. Use another name for the argument, if one is available. For example, -value is an alias for -values. =item 2. Change the capitalization, e.g. -Values =item 3. Put quotes around the argument name, e.g. '-values' =back Many routines will do something useful with a named argument that it doesn't recognize. For example, you can produce non-standard HTTP header fields by providing them as named arguments: print $q->header(-type => 'text/html', -cost => 'Three smackers', -annoyance_level => 'high', -complaints_to => 'bit bucket'); This will produce the following nonstandard HTTP header: HTTP/1.0 200 OK Cost: Three smackers Annoyance-level: high Complaints-to: bit bucket Content-type: text/html Notice the way that underscores are translated automatically into hyphens. HTML-generating routines perform a different type of translation. This feature allows you to keep up with the rapidly changing HTTP and HTML "standards". =head2 CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT (OBJECT-ORIENTED STYLE): $query = CGI->new; This will parse the input (from both POST and GET methods) and store it into a perl5 object called $query. Any filehandles from file uploads will have their position reset to the beginning of the file. =head2 CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE $query = CGI->new(INPUTFILE); If you provide a file handle to the new() method, it will read parameters from the file (or STDIN, or whatever). The file can be in any of the forms describing below under debugging (i.e. a series of newline delimited TAG=VALUE pairs will work). Conveniently, this type of file is created by the save() method (see below). Multiple records can be saved and restored. Perl purists will be pleased to know that this syntax accepts references to file handles, or even references to filehandle globs, which is the "official" way to pass a filehandle: $query = CGI->new(\*STDIN); You can also initialize the CGI object with a FileHandle or IO::File object. If you are using the function-oriented interface and want to initialize CGI state from a file handle, the way to do this is with B. This will (re)initialize the default CGI object from the indicated file handle. open (IN,"test.in") || die; restore_parameters(IN); close IN; You can also initialize the query object from a hash reference: $query = CGI->new( {'dinosaur'=>'barney', 'song'=>'I love you', 'friends'=>[qw/Jessica George Nancy/]} ); or from a properly formatted, URL-escaped query string: $query = CGI->new('dinosaur=barney&color=purple'); or from a previously existing CGI object (currently this clones the parameter list, but none of the other object-specific fields, such as autoescaping): $old_query = CGI->new; $new_query = CGI->new($old_query); To create an empty query, initialize it from an empty string or hash: $empty_query = CGI->new(""); -or- $empty_query = CGI->new({}); =head2 FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY: @keywords = $query->keywords If the script was invoked as the result of an search, the parsed keywords can be obtained as an array using the keywords() method. =head2 FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT: @names = $query->param If the script was invoked with a parameter list (e.g. "name1=value1&name2=value2&name3=value3"), the param() method will return the parameter names as a list. If the script was invoked as an script and contains a string without ampersands (e.g. "value1+value2+value3") , there will be a single parameter named "keywords" containing the "+"-delimited keywords. NOTE: As of version 1.5, the array of parameter names returned will be in the same order as they were submitted by the browser. Usually this order is the same as the order in which the parameters are defined in the form (however, this isn't part of the spec, and so isn't guaranteed). =head2 FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER: @values = $query->param('foo'); -or- $value = $query->param('foo'); Pass the param() method a single argument to fetch the value of the named parameter. If the parameter is multivalued (e.g. from multiple selections in a scrolling list), you can ask to receive an array. Otherwise the method will return a single value. If a value is not given in the query string, as in the queries "name1=&name2=", it will be returned as an empty string. If the parameter does not exist at all, then param() will return undef in a scalar context, and the empty list in a list context. =head2 SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER: $query->param('foo','an','array','of','values'); This sets the value for the named parameter 'foo' to an array of values. This is one way to change the value of a field AFTER the script has been invoked once before. (Another way is with the -override parameter accepted by all methods that generate form elements.) param() also recognizes a named parameter style of calling described in more detail later: $query->param(-name=>'foo',-values=>['an','array','of','values']); -or- $query->param(-name=>'foo',-value=>'the value'); =head2 APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER: $query->append(-name=>'foo',-values=>['yet','more','values']); This adds a value or list of values to the named parameter. The values are appended to the end of the parameter if it already exists. Otherwise the parameter is created. Note that this method only recognizes the named argument calling syntax. =head2 IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE: $query->import_names('R'); This creates a series of variables in the 'R' namespace. For example, $R::foo, @R:foo. For keyword lists, a variable @R::keywords will appear. If no namespace is given, this method will assume 'Q'. WARNING: don't import anything into 'main'; this is a major security risk!!!! NOTE 1: Variable names are transformed as necessary into legal Perl variable names. All non-legal characters are transformed into underscores. If you need to keep the original names, you should use the param() method instead to access CGI variables by name. NOTE 2: In older versions, this method was called B. As of version 2.20, this name has been removed completely to avoid conflict with the built-in Perl module B operator. =head2 DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY: $query->delete('foo','bar','baz'); This completely clears a list of parameters. It sometimes useful for resetting parameters that you don't want passed down between script invocations. If you are using the function call interface, use "Delete()" instead to avoid conflicts with Perl's built-in delete operator. =head2 DELETING ALL PARAMETERS: $query->delete_all(); This clears the CGI object completely. It might be useful to ensure that all the defaults are taken when you create a fill-out form. Use Delete_all() instead if you are using the function call interface. =head2 HANDLING NON-URLENCODED ARGUMENTS If POSTed data is not of type application/x-www-form-urlencoded or multipart/form-data, then the POSTed data will not be processed, but instead be returned as-is in a parameter named POSTDATA. To retrieve it, use code like this: my $data = $query->param('POSTDATA'); Likewise if PUTed data can be retrieved with code like this: my $data = $query->param('PUTDATA'); (If you don't know what the preceding means, don't worry about it. It only affects people trying to use CGI for XML processing and other specialized tasks.) =head2 DIRECT ACCESS TO THE PARAMETER LIST: $q->param_fetch('address')->[1] = '1313 Mockingbird Lane'; unshift @{$q->param_fetch(-name=>'address')},'George Munster'; If you need access to the parameter list in a way that isn't covered by the methods above, you can obtain a direct reference to it by calling the B method with the name of the . This will return an array reference to the named parameters, which you then can manipulate in any way you like. You can also use a named argument style using the B<-name> argument. =head2 FETCHING THE PARAMETER LIST AS A HASH: $params = $q->Vars; print $params->{'address'}; @foo = split("\0",$params->{'foo'}); %params = $q->Vars; use CGI ':cgi-lib'; $params = Vars; Many people want to fetch the entire parameter list as a hash in which the keys are the names of the CGI parameters, and the values are the parameters' values. The Vars() method does this. Called in a scalar context, it returns the parameter list as a tied hash reference. Changing a key changes the value of the parameter in the underlying CGI parameter list. Called in a list context, it returns the parameter list as an ordinary hash. This allows you to read the contents of the parameter list, but not to change it. When using this, the thing you must watch out for are multivalued CGI parameters. Because a hash cannot distinguish between scalar and list context, multivalued parameters will be returned as a packed string, separated by the "\0" (null) character. You must split this packed string in order to get at the individual values. This is the convention introduced long ago by Steve Brenner in his cgi-lib.pl module for Perl version 4. If you wish to use Vars() as a function, import the I<:cgi-lib> set of function calls (also see the section on CGI-LIB compatibility). =head2 SAVING THE STATE OF THE SCRIPT TO A FILE: $query->save(\*FILEHANDLE) This will write the current state of the form to the provided filehandle. You can read it back in by providing a filehandle to the new() method. Note that the filehandle can be a file, a pipe, or whatever! The format of the saved file is: NAME1=VALUE1 NAME1=VALUE1' NAME2=VALUE2 NAME3=VALUE3 = Both name and value are URL escaped. Multi-valued CGI parameters are represented as repeated names. A session record is delimited by a single = symbol. You can write out multiple records and read them back in with several calls to B. You can do this across several sessions by opening the file in append mode, allowing you to create primitive guest books, or to keep a history of users' queries. Here's a short example of creating multiple session records: use CGI; open (OUT,'>>','test.out') || die; $records = 5; for (0..$records) { my $q = CGI->new; $q->param(-name=>'counter',-value=>$_); $q->save(\*OUT); } close OUT; # reopen for reading open (IN,'<','test.out') || die; while (!eof(IN)) { my $q = CGI->new(\*IN); print $q->param('counter'),"\n"; } The file format used for save/restore is identical to that used by the Whitehead Genome Center's data exchange format "Boulderio", and can be manipulated and even databased using Boulderio utilities. See http://stein.cshl.org/boulder/ for further details. If you wish to use this method from the function-oriented (non-OO) interface, the exported name for this method is B. =head2 RETRIEVING CGI ERRORS Errors can occur while processing user input, particularly when processing uploaded files. When these errors occur, CGI will stop processing and return an empty parameter list. You can test for the existence and nature of errors using the I function. The error messages are formatted as HTTP status codes. You can either incorporate the error text into an HTML page, or use it as the value of the HTTP status: my $error = $q->cgi_error; if ($error) { print $q->header(-status=>$error), $q->start_html('Problems'), $q->h2('Request not processed'), $q->strong($error); exit 0; } When using the function-oriented interface (see the next section), errors may only occur the first time you call I. Be ready for this! =head2 USING THE FUNCTION-ORIENTED INTERFACE To use the function-oriented interface, you must specify which CGI.pm routines or sets of routines to import into your script's namespace. There is a small overhead associated with this importation, but it isn't much. use CGI ; The listed methods will be imported into the current package; you can call them directly without creating a CGI object first. This example shows how to import the B and B methods, and then use them directly: use CGI 'param','header'; print header('text/plain'); $zipcode = param('zipcode'); More frequently, you'll import common sets of functions by referring to the groups by name. All function sets are preceded with a ":" character as in ":html3" (for tags defined in the HTML 3 standard). Here is a list of the function sets you can import: =over 4 =item B<:cgi> Import all CGI-handling methods, such as B, B and the like. =item B<:form> Import all fill-out form generating methods, such as B. =item B<:html2> Import all methods that generate HTML 2.0 standard elements. =item B<:html3> Import all methods that generate HTML 3.0 elements (such as , and ). =item B<:html4> Import all methods that generate HTML 4 elements (such as , and ). =item B<:netscape> Import the , and
tags. =item B<:html> Import all HTML-generating shortcuts (i.e. 'html2', 'html3', 'html4' and 'netscape') =item B<:standard> Import "standard" features, 'html2', 'html3', 'html4', 'form' and 'cgi'. =item B<:all> Import all the available methods. For the full list, see the CGI.pm code, where the variable %EXPORT_TAGS is defined. =back If you import a function name that is not part of CGI.pm, the module will treat it as a new HTML tag and generate the appropriate subroutine. You can then use it like any other HTML tag. This is to provide for the rapidly-evolving HTML "standard." For example, say Microsoft comes out with a new tag called (which causes the user's desktop to be flooded with a rotating gradient fill until his machine reboots). You don't need to wait for a new version of CGI.pm to start using it immediately: use CGI qw/:standard :html3 gradient/; print gradient({-start=>'red',-end=>'blue'}); Note that in the interests of execution speed CGI.pm does B use the standard L syntax for specifying load symbols. This may change in the future. If you import any of the state-maintaining CGI or form-generating methods, a default CGI object will be created and initialized automatically the first time you use any of the methods that require one to be present. This includes B, B, B and the like. (If you need direct access to the CGI object, you can find it in the global variable B<$CGI::Q>). By importing CGI.pm methods, you can create visually elegant scripts: use CGI qw/:standard/; print header, start_html('Simple Script'), h1('Simple Script'), start_form, "What's your name? ",textfield('name'),p, "What's the combination?", checkbox_group(-name=>'words', -values=>['eenie','meenie','minie','moe'], -defaults=>['eenie','moe']),p, "What's your favorite color?", popup_menu(-name=>'color', -values=>['red','green','blue','chartreuse']),p, submit, end_form, hr,"\n"; if (param) { print "Your name is ",em(param('name')),p, "The keywords are: ",em(join(", ",param('words'))),p, "Your favorite color is ",em(param('color')),".\n"; } print end_html; =head2 PRAGMAS In addition to the function sets, there are a number of pragmas that you can import. Pragmas, which are always preceded by a hyphen, change the way that CGI.pm functions in various ways. Pragmas, function sets, and individual functions can all be imported in the same use() line. For example, the following use statement imports the standard set of functions and enables debugging mode (pragma -debug): use CGI qw/:standard -debug/; The current list of pragmas is as follows: =over 4 =item -any When you I, then any method that the query object doesn't recognize will be interpreted as a new HTML tag. This allows you to support the next I HTML extension. This lets you go wild with new and unsupported tags: use CGI qw(-any); $q=CGI->new; print $q->gradient({speed=>'fast',start=>'red',end=>'blue'}); Since using any causes any mistyped method name to be interpreted as an HTML tag, use it with care or not at all. =item -compile This causes the indicated autoloaded methods to be compiled up front, rather than deferred to later. This is useful for scripts that run for an extended period of time under FastCGI or mod_perl, and for those destined to be crunched by Malcolm Beattie's Perl compiler. Use it in conjunction with the methods or method families you plan to use. use CGI qw(-compile :standard :html3); or even use CGI qw(-compile :all); Note that using the -compile pragma in this way will always have the effect of importing the compiled functions into the current namespace. If you want to compile without importing use the compile() method instead: use CGI(); CGI->compile(); This is particularly useful in a mod_perl environment, in which you might want to precompile all CGI routines in a startup script, and then import the functions individually in each mod_perl script. =item -nosticky By default the CGI module implements a state-preserving behavior called "sticky" fields. The way this works is that if you are regenerating a form, the methods that generate the form field values will interrogate param() to see if similarly-named parameters are present in the query string. If they find a like-named parameter, they will use it to set their default values. Sometimes this isn't what you want. The B<-nosticky> pragma prevents this behavior. You can also selectively change the sticky behavior in each element that you generate. =item -tabindex Automatically add tab index attributes to each form field. With this option turned off, you can still add tab indexes manually by passing a -tabindex option to each field-generating method. =item -no_undef_params This keeps CGI.pm from including undef params in the parameter list. =item -no_xhtml By default, CGI.pm versions 2.69 and higher emit XHTML (http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/). The -no_xhtml pragma disables this feature. Thanks to Michalis Kabrianis for this feature. If start_html()'s -dtd parameter specifies an HTML 2.0, 3.2, 4.0 or 4.01 DTD, XHTML will automatically be disabled without needing to use this pragma. =item -utf8 This makes CGI.pm treat all parameters as UTF-8 strings. Use this with care, as it will interfere with the processing of binary uploads. It is better to manually select which fields are expected to return utf-8 strings and convert them using code like this: use Encode; my $arg = decode utf8=>param('foo'); =item -nph This makes CGI.pm produce a header appropriate for an NPH (no parsed header) script. You may need to do other things as well to tell the server that the script is NPH. See the discussion of NPH scripts below. =item -newstyle_urls Separate the name=value pairs in CGI parameter query strings with semicolons rather than ampersands. For example: ?name=fred;age=24;favorite_color=3 Semicolon-delimited query strings are always accepted, and will be emitted by self_url() and query_string(). newstyle_urls became the default in version 2.64. =item -oldstyle_urls Separate the name=value pairs in CGI parameter query strings with ampersands rather than semicolons. This is no longer the default. =item -autoload This overrides the autoloader so that any function in your program that is not recognized is referred to CGI.pm for possible evaluation. This allows you to use all the CGI.pm functions without adding them to your symbol table, which is of concern for mod_perl users who are worried about memory consumption. I when I<-autoload> is in effect, you cannot use "poetry mode" (functions without the parenthesis). Use I rather than I
, or add something like I to the top of your script. =item -no_debug This turns off the command-line processing features. If you want to run a CGI.pm script from the command line to produce HTML, and you don't want it to read CGI parameters from the command line or STDIN, then use this pragma: use CGI qw(-no_debug :standard); =item -debug This turns on full debugging. In addition to reading CGI arguments from the command-line processing, CGI.pm will pause and try to read arguments from STDIN, producing the message "(offline mode: enter name=value pairs on standard input)" features. See the section on debugging for more details. =item -private_tempfiles CGI.pm can process uploaded file. Ordinarily it spools the uploaded file to a temporary directory, then deletes the file when done. However, this opens the risk of eavesdropping as described in the file upload section. Another CGI script author could peek at this data during the upload, even if it is confidential information. On Unix systems, the -private_tempfiles pragma will cause the temporary file to be unlinked as soon as it is opened and before any data is written into it, reducing, but not eliminating the risk of eavesdropping (there is still a potential race condition). To make life harder for the attacker, the program chooses tempfile names by calculating a 32 bit checksum of the incoming HTTP headers. To ensure that the temporary file cannot be read by other CGI scripts, use suEXEC or a CGI wrapper program to run your script. The temporary file is created with mode 0600 (neither world nor group readable). The temporary directory is selected using the following algorithm: 1. if the current user (e.g. "nobody") has a directory named "tmp" in its home directory, use that (Unix systems only). 2. if the environment variable TMPDIR exists, use the location indicated. 3. Otherwise try the locations /usr/tmp, /var/tmp, C:\temp, /tmp, /temp, ::Temporary Items, and \WWW_ROOT. Each of these locations is checked that it is a directory and is writable. If not, the algorithm tries the next choice. =back =head2 SPECIAL FORMS FOR IMPORTING HTML-TAG FUNCTIONS Many of the methods generate HTML tags. As described below, tag functions automatically generate both the opening and closing tags. For example: print h1('Level 1 Header'); produces

Level 1 Header

There will be some times when you want to produce the start and end tags yourself. In this case, you can use the form start_I and end_I, as in: print start_h1,'Level 1 Header',end_h1; With a few exceptions (described below), start_I and end_I functions are not generated automatically when you I. However, you can specify the tags you want to generate I functions for by putting an asterisk in front of their name, or, alternatively, requesting either "start_I" or "end_I" in the import list. Example: use CGI qw/:standard *table start_ul/; In this example, the following functions are generated in addition to the standard ones: =over 4 =item 1. start_table() (generates a
tag) =item 2. end_table() (generates a
tag) =item 3. start_ul() (generates a
    tag) =item 4. end_ul() (generates a
tag) =back =head1 GENERATING DYNAMIC DOCUMENTS Most of CGI.pm's functions deal with creating documents on the fly. Generally you will produce the HTTP header first, followed by the document itself. CGI.pm provides functions for generating HTTP headers of various types as well as for generating HTML. For creating GIF images, see the GD.pm module. Each of these functions produces a fragment of HTML or HTTP which you can print out directly so that it displays in the browser window, append to a string, or save to a file for later use. =head2 CREATING A STANDARD HTTP HEADER: Normally the first thing you will do in any CGI script is print out an HTTP header. This tells the browser what type of document to expect, and gives other optional information, such as the language, expiration date, and whether to cache the document. The header can also be manipulated for special purposes, such as server push and pay per view pages. print header; -or- print header('image/gif'); -or- print header('text/html','204 No response'); -or- print header(-type=>'image/gif', -nph=>1, -status=>'402 Payment required', -expires=>'+3d', -cookie=>$cookie, -charset=>'utf-7', -attachment=>'foo.gif', -Cost=>'$2.00'); header() returns the Content-type: header. You can provide your own MIME type if you choose, otherwise it defaults to text/html. An optional second parameter specifies the status code and a human-readable message. For example, you can specify 204, "No response" to create a script that tells the browser to do nothing at all. The last example shows the named argument style for passing arguments to the CGI methods using named parameters. Recognized parameters are B<-type>, B<-status>, B<-expires>, and B<-cookie>. Any other named parameters will be stripped of their initial hyphens and turned into header fields, allowing you to specify any HTTP header you desire. Internal underscores will be turned into hyphens: print header(-Content_length=>3002); Most browsers will not cache the output from CGI scripts. Every time the browser reloads the page, the script is invoked anew. You can change this behavior with the B<-expires> parameter. When you specify an absolute or relative expiration interval with this parameter, some browsers and proxy servers will cache the script's output until the indicated expiration date. The following forms are all valid for the -expires field: +30s 30 seconds from now +10m ten minutes from now +1h one hour from now -1d yesterday (i.e. "ASAP!") now immediately +3M in three months +10y in ten years time Thursday, 25-Apr-1999 00:40:33 GMT at the indicated time & date The B<-cookie> parameter generates a header that tells the browser to provide a "magic cookie" during all subsequent transactions with your script. Some cookies have a special format that includes interesting attributes such as expiration time. Use the cookie() method to create and retrieve session cookies. The B<-nph> parameter, if set to a true value, will issue the correct headers to work with a NPH (no-parse-header) script. This is important to use with certain servers that expect all their scripts to be NPH. The B<-charset> parameter can be used to control the character set sent to the browser. If not provided, defaults to ISO-8859-1. As a side effect, this sets the charset() method as well. The B<-attachment> parameter can be used to turn the page into an attachment. Instead of displaying the page, some browsers will prompt the user to save it to disk. The value of the argument is the suggested name for the saved file. In order for this to work, you may have to set the B<-type> to "application/octet-stream". The B<-p3p> parameter will add a P3P tag to the outgoing header. The parameter can be an arrayref or a space-delimited string of P3P tags. For example: print header(-p3p=>[qw(CAO DSP LAW CURa)]); print header(-p3p=>'CAO DSP LAW CURa'); In either case, the outgoing header will be formatted as: P3P: policyref="/w3c/p3p.xml" cp="CAO DSP LAW CURa" Note that if a header value contains a carriage return, a leading space will be added to each new line that doesn't already have one as specified by RFC2616 section 4.2. For example: print header( -ingredients => "ham\neggs\nbacon" ); will generate Ingredients: ham eggs bacon =head2 GENERATING A REDIRECTION HEADER print $q->redirect('http://somewhere.else/in/movie/land'); Sometimes you don't want to produce a document yourself, but simply redirect the browser elsewhere, perhaps choosing a URL based on the time of day or the identity of the user. The redirect() method redirects the browser to a different URL. If you use redirection like this, you should B print out a header as well. You should always use full URLs (including the http: or ftp: part) in redirection requests. Relative URLs will not work correctly. You can also use named arguments: print $q->redirect( -uri=>'http://somewhere.else/in/movie/land', -nph=>1, -status=>301); All names arguments recognized by header() are also recognized by redirect(). However, most HTTP headers, including those generated by -cookie and -target, are ignored by the browser. The B<-nph> parameter, if set to a true value, will issue the correct headers to work with a NPH (no-parse-header) script. This is important to use with certain servers, such as Microsoft IIS, which expect all their scripts to be NPH. The B<-status> parameter will set the status of the redirect. HTTP defines three different possible redirection status codes: 301 Moved Permanently 302 Found 303 See Other The default if not specified is 302, which means "moved temporarily." You may change the status to another status code if you wish. Be advised that changing the status to anything other than 301, 302 or 303 will probably break redirection. =head2 CREATING THE HTML DOCUMENT HEADER print start_html(-title=>'Secrets of the Pyramids', -author=>'fred@capricorn.org', -base=>'true', -target=>'_blank', -meta=>{'keywords'=>'pharaoh secret mummy', 'copyright'=>'copyright 1996 King Tut'}, -style=>{'src'=>'/styles/style1.css'}, -BGCOLOR=>'blue'); After creating the HTTP header, most CGI scripts will start writing out an HTML document. The start_html() routine creates the top of the page, along with a lot of optional information that controls the page's appearance and behavior. This method returns a canned HTML header and the opening tag. All parameters are optional. In the named parameter form, recognized parameters are -title, -author, -base, -xbase, -dtd, -lang and -target (see below for the explanation). Any additional parameters you provide, such as the unofficial BGCOLOR attribute, are added to the tag. Additional parameters must be proceeded by a hyphen. The argument B<-xbase> allows you to provide an HREF for the tag different from the current location, as in -xbase=>"http://home.mcom.com/" All relative links will be interpreted relative to this tag. The argument B<-target> allows you to provide a default target frame for all the links and fill-out forms on the page. B -target=>"answer_window" All relative links will be interpreted relative to this tag. You add arbitrary meta information to the header with the B<-meta> argument. This argument expects a reference to a hash containing name/value pairs of meta information. These will be turned into a series of header tags that look something like this: To create an HTTP-EQUIV type of tag, use B<-head>, described below. The B<-style> argument is used to incorporate cascading stylesheets into your code. See the section on CASCADING STYLESHEETS for more information. The B<-lang> argument is used to incorporate a language attribute into the tag. For example: print $q->start_html(-lang=>'fr-CA'); The default if not specified is "en-US" for US English, unless the -dtd parameter specifies an HTML 2.0 or 3.2 DTD, in which case the lang attribute is left off. You can force the lang attribute to left off in other cases by passing an empty string (-lang=>''). The B<-encoding> argument can be used to specify the character set for XHTML. It defaults to iso-8859-1 if not specified. The B<-declare_xml> argument, when used in conjunction with XHTML, will put a declaration at the top of the HTML header. The sole purpose of this declaration is to declare the character set encoding. In the absence of -declare_xml, the output HTML will contain a tag that specifies the encoding, allowing the HTML to pass most validators. The default for -declare_xml is false. You can place other arbitrary HTML elements to the section with the B<-head> tag. For example, to place the rarely-used element in the head section, use this: print start_html(-head=>Link({-rel=>'next', -href=>'http://www.capricorn.com/s2.html'})); To incorporate multiple HTML elements into the section, just pass an array reference: print start_html(-head=>[ Link({-rel=>'next', -href=>'http://www.capricorn.com/s2.html'}), Link({-rel=>'previous', -href=>'http://www.capricorn.com/s1.html'}) ] ); And here's how to create an HTTP-EQUIV tag: print start_html(-head=>meta({-http_equiv => 'Content-Type', -content => 'text/html'})) JAVASCRIPTING: The B<-script>, B<-noScript>, B<-onLoad>, B<-onMouseOver>, B<-onMouseOut> and B<-onUnload> parameters are used to add JavaScript calls to your pages. B<-script> should point to a block of text containing JavaScript function definitions. This block will be placed within a